Discussion Forum 7

Discussion Forum 7

In your view, which leadership theory has the greatest practical application? Why?

The discussion forum must be a minimum of 100 words with an initial post and responses to at least two classmates’ posts.

Technique: Select the “Start a new thread” link found in the starter discussion thread and type your post into the Message box that is displayed. Be sure to add a subject for the discussion and follow all special instructions. Read through all the initial posts and select “Reply to thread” when you find the one(s) you want to discuss further.

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Leadership

Chapter Fourteen

14-2

After reading the material in this chapter, you should be able to:

LO14.1 Review trait theory research, and discuss the takeaways from both the trait and behavioral styles theories of leadership. LO14.2 Explain, according to Fiedler’s contingency model, how leadership style interacts with situational control, and discuss the takeaways from this model LO14.3 Discuss House’s revised path-goal theory and it’s practical takeaways.

14-3

After reading the material in this chapter, you should be able to:

LO14.4 Describe the difference between transactional and transformational leadership and discuss how transformational leadership transforms followers and work groups. LO14.5 Explain the leader-member exchange (LMX) model of leadership and the concept of shared leadership. LO14.6 Review the principles of servant leadership. LO14.7 Describe the follower’s role in the leadership process

14-4

What Does Leadership Involve?

Leadership  “a social influence process in which the leader

seeks the voluntary participation of subordinates in an effort to reach organizational goals”

14-5

Trait Theory

Leader trait  physical or personality characteristic that can

be used to differentiate leaders from followers.

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What Traits Are Possessed by Effective Leaders?

Intelligence Dominance Self-confidence

Level of energy and

activity

Task-relevant knowledge

14-7

What Traits Are Possessed by Effective Leaders?

Implicit leadership theory  based on the idea

that people have beliefs about how leaders should behave and what they should do for their followers.

Leadership prototype  mental

representations of the traits and behaviors possessed by leaders.

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What Traits Are Possessed by Bad Leaders?

Incompetent Rigid Intemperate

Callous Corrupt Insular

Evil

14-9

Do Women and Men Display the Same Leadership Traits?

Men and women were seen as displaying more task and social leadership, respectively Women used a more democratic or participative style than men and men used a more autocratic and directive style than women

14-10

What Are the Takeaways from Trait Theory?

First, organizations may want to include personality and trait assessments into their selection and promotion processes. Second, management development programs can be used to build a pipeline of leadership talent.

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Key Positive Leadership Traits

14-12

Behavioral Styles Theory

The Ohio State Studies identified two critical dimensions of leader behavior.  Consideration: creating mutual respect and

trust with followers.  Initiating structure: organizing and defining

what group members should be doing.

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Question?

Allen thrives on organizing and defining what group members should be doing to maximize output. According to the Ohio State researchers, Allen is exhibiting which of these behaviors? A.Initiating structure B.Concern for people C.Relationship-motivated D.Consideration

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Takeaways from Behavioral Styles Theory

Leader behaviors can be systematically improved and developed. There is no one best style of leadership. The effectiveness of a particular leadership style depends on the situation at hand.

14-15

Situational Theories

Situational theories  propose that the effectiveness of a particular

style of leader behavior depends on the situation.

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Fiedler’s Contingency Model

The performance of a leader depends on two interrelated factors:

1.The degree to which the situation gives the leader control and influence

2.The leader’s basic motivation

14-17

Fiedler’s Contingency Model

Situational control  refers to the amount of control and influence

the leader has in his immediate work environment

14-18

Three Dimensions of Situational Control

Leader-member relations  the extent to which the leader has the support, loyalty,

and trust of the work group Task structure  concerned with the amount of structure contained

within tasks performed by the work group Position power  the degree to which the leader has formal power to

reward, punish, or otherwise obtain compliance from employees

14-19

Representation of Fiedler’s Contingency Model

14-20

Question?

Kimberly is a task-motivated leader. According to Fiedler’s work, Kimberly would not be effective under which conditions? A.Situations of high control B.Conditions of low control C.Conditions of achievement-orientation D.Conditions of moderate control

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Path-Goal Theory

Describes how leadership effectiveness is influenced by the interaction between four leadership styles – directive, supportive, participative, achievement-oriented Contingency factors  Situational variables that cause one style of

leadership to be more effective than another

14-22

A Reformulated Theory

Three key changes: 1. Leadership is more complex and involves

a greater variety of leader behavior. 2. The role of intrinsic motivation and

empowerment in influencing leadership effectiveness

3. Shared leadership

14-23

A General Representation of House’s Revised Path-Goal Theory

14-24

Categories of Leader Behavior

14-25

Applying Situational Theories

1. Identify important outcomes 2. Identify relevant leadership

types/behaviors. 3. Identify situational conditions 4. Match leadership to the conditions at hand 5. Determine how to make the match

14-26

The Full-range Model of Leadership

Transactional leadership  focuses on the clarifying employees’ roles and

providing followers with positive and negative rewards contingent on performance.

14-27

The Full-range Model of Leadership

Transformational leaders  engender trust, seek to develop leadership in

others, exhibit self-sacrifice and serve as moral agents, focusing themselves and followers on objectives that transcend the more immediate needs of the work group.

14-28

Transformational Leader Behaviors

Inspirational motivation Idealized influence

Individualized consideration

Intellectual stimulation

14-29

Question?

Coach Bryant gave many great halftime speeches. Which transformational behavior was this? A.Inspirational motivation B.Idealized influence C.Individualized consideration D.Intellectual stimulation

14-30

A Transformational Model of Leadership

14-31

Managerial Implications

1. The establishment of a positive vision of the future—inspirational motivation— should be considered a first step at applying transformational leadership

2. The best leaders are both transformational and transactional

3. Transformational leadership influences group dynamics and group-level outcomes

4. Transformational leadership works virtually

14-32

Maintaining Ethical Transformational Leadership

1. Create and enforce a clearly stated code of ethics.

2. Recruiting, selecting, and promoting people who display ethical behavior.

3. Develop performance expectations around the treatment of employees.

4. Train employees to value diversity. 5. Identify, reward, and publicly praise employees

who exemplify high moral conduct.

14-33

The Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Model of Leadership

Focuses on the quality of relationships between managers and subordinates as opposed to the behaviors or traits of either leaders or followers. Assumes that leaders develop unique one- on-one relationships with direct reports.

14-34

The Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Model of Leadership

In-group exchange  leaders and

followers develop a partnership characterized by reciprocal influence, mutual trust, respect and liking, and a sense of common fates.

Out-group exchange  Leaders are

characterized as overseers who fail to create a sense of mutual trust, respect, or common fate

14-35

Managerial Implications

Leaders are encouraged to establish high- performance expectations for all of their direct reports. Managers should be careful that they don’t create a homogeneous work environment.

14-36

Shared Leadership

Shared leadership  entails a simultaneous, ongoing, mutual

influence process in which individuals share responsibility for leading regardless of formal roles and titles.

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Key Questions and Answers to Consider When Developing Shared Leadership

14-38

Servant Leadership

Servant leadership  focuses on increasing services to others rather

than oneself  less likely to engage in self-serving behaviors

that hurt others

14-39

Role of Followers in the Leadership Process

Critical for followers to understand their boss Followers need to understand their own strengths and weaknesses Followers should build on mutual strengths to accommodate the leader’s expectations

14-40

Video: Women Leading in the Workplace

Space Shuttle Commander Eileen Collins hopes to serve as a role model for other women. How has life in the USAF changed for women over the past several decades to allow her to be Shuttle Commander? Commander Collins cites cultural issues as a potential cause of women not pursuing math and engineering oriented training and careers as frequently as men. Why do you think this is? Based on what you saw in the video, do you think that family responsibilities prevent women from growing in their careers?

  • Leadership
  • After reading the material in this chapter, �you should be able to:
  • After reading the material in this chapter, �you should be able to:
  • What Does Leadership Involve?
  • Trait Theory
  • What Traits Are Possessed by Effective Leaders?
  • What Traits Are Possessed by Effective Leaders?
  • What Traits Are Possessed by �Bad Leaders?
  • Do Women and Men Display the Same Leadership Traits?
  • What Are the Takeaways from �Trait Theory?
  • Key Positive Leadership Traits
  • Behavioral Styles Theory
  • Question?
  • Takeaways from Behavioral Styles Theory
  • Situational Theories
  • Fiedler’s Contingency Model
  • Fiedler’s Contingency Model
  • Three Dimensions of Situational Control
  • Representation of �Fiedler’s Contingency Model
  • Question?
  • Path-Goal Theory
  • A Reformulated Theory
  • A General Representation of�House’s Revised Path-Goal Theory
  • Categories of Leader Behavior
  • Applying Situational Theories
  • The Full-range Model of�Leadership
  • The Full-range Model of�Leadership
  • Transformational Leader Behaviors
  • Question?
  • A Transformational Model of �Leadership
  • Managerial Implications
  • Maintaining Ethical Transformational Leadership
  • The Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Model of Leadership
  • The Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Model of Leadership
  • Managerial Implications
  • Shared Leadership
  • Key Questions and Answers to Consider When Developing Shared Leadership
  • Servant Leadership
  • Role of Followers in the Leadership Process
  • Video: Women Leading in the Workplace
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