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Synthesis of Required Number of Scholarly, Peer-Reviewed, Empirical Research Articles Addressing an Information Security Risk Management Problem in a Detailed yet Concise Manner

Article Review 1

“Keywords. Leadership, Management style, Religion, Non-profit organizations, Churches, Growth.

Theory Reference. Contingency theory

Purpose. Researchers focused on leadership study which may or may not be dependent on whether an organization is for-profit or not-for-profit..

Method/Instruments. From each of the 45 associations in the Arkansas Baptist State convention, one minister/pastor with a tenure of at least three years was selected to participate in this study. A total of 29 usable responses were received. The respondents were all European-American males who ranged in age from 33 to 62 years, with an average of 47.9 years. In addition, while the mean length of tenure for the pastors was 7.91 years with a standard deviation of 4.41 years, on the average, they have had pastoral responsibilities in more than four churches.

Results. The findings of this study indicate that even in a not-for-profit context, effective leadership is defined not only by task and people orientations but also the interaction between them.

Conclusion. Therefore, in developing the psychological profile of effective not-for-profit leaders, as is the case in the for-profit sector, management researchers should explore both their task and people orientations” (Adeyemi-Bello, 2001)

Article Review 2

“Keywords. Customers, Firms, Nigeria, Performance, Shareholders, Stakeholders.

Purpose. The purpose of this study was based on a comparative case study of two organizations in the Nigeria financial sector in relation to their stakeholder management practices. The aim is to study the impact of stakeholder analysis on the performance of these selected organizations.

Method/Instruments. This paper is based on a comparative case study of two organizations in the Nigeria financial sector in relation to their stakeholder management practices.

Results. The study confirms the importance of stakeholder analysis in the improvement of organization performance and asserts that the achievement of an organization’s set objectives is dependent on how well the organization can represent the interest of its key stakeholders. It was thus concluded that if an organization can align and fulfill the needs of all its stakeholders successfully, its performance can be improved significantly.

Recommendation. Future research should also seek to that management of organizations should not only ensure that their business activities are committed to addressing their stakeholder concerns and needs effectively, but must also be committed to the long-term survival of the organizational goals” (Agwu, 2019)

Article Review 3

“Keywords. Ethical leadership; organizational justice; person–organization fit (P–O Fit); ethical behavior of employees.

Theory Reference. Equity theory

Purpose. The objective of the present study is to widen concepts study investigates the mediating effect of organizational justice on the relationship between ethical leadership and employee’s ethical behavior. We also examine the moderating role of P–O fit on the relationship between organizational justice and employee’s ethical behavior.

Method/Instruments. The methodology of this study is survey focused on 295 employees belonging to organizations in Iraq. We show that ethical leadership positively influences employees’ ethical behavior, and this relationship is shaped by organizational justice.

Results. This paper has sought to analyze the findings reflecting the positive impact of organizational justice on ethical behavior, and this relationship is more pronounced in employees with high rather than low P–O fit. This study clarifies the importance of employee’s P–O fit and its impact on organizational processes for creating a positive impact on ethical behavior in the workplace. They also share practical implications of the study and recommend systemic research that explores this area.” (Al Halbusi, Williams, Mansoor, Hassan, & Hamid, 2019)

Article Review 4

“Keywords. Problem solving, Employee behaviour, Managers, Organizational culture

Purpose. This study investigates and define toxins such as toxic leader, toxic manager, toxic culture, and toxic organization and explore how they affect the organization’s performance and its employees.

Method/Instruments. This article is basically twofold. It is a literature review utilizing a

selective bibliography providing advice on information sources and it is comprehensive in that the objective is to cover the mainstream and unique contributors of toxicity. It is also a general review providing an overview of this contemporary issue facing organizations with descriptions of what the problem is and how to address it

Results. Organizations as well as their employees suffer from the affects of toxins that are present within the organization. They also suffer from psychological effects, such as; impaired judgment, irritability, anxiety, anger, an inability to concentrate and memory loss. On the other hand, it has also been found that companies in North America alone lose an excess of $200 billion each year due to employee deviance. Employee deviance has also been found to be the cause of approximately 30 percent of all business failures.

Practical implications. There are possible solutions to reduce, and sometimes even eliminate, toxicity in an organization. Possible solutions, such as recognition, and the use of toxin handlers to eliminate, reduce, or avoid the infiltration and spreading of these toxins is very important to organizations thatsuffer from or would like to prevent toxicity in the workplace.” (Appelbaum & Roy‐Girard, 2007).

Article Review 5

“Keywords. intellectual property, international trade, national and international litigations, Samsung, Apple

Purpose. Researchers present an in-depth case study that investigates the way this national litigation interfere with international trade, analyzing some of court decisions and their impact in a product presence on a certain market.

Method/Instruments. The current study is both exploratory and descriptive in nature.

Results. Findings firstly, the legal battle between the two companies presents interesting situations and interpretations in the field of IP rights in the IT business. Secondly, the fact that Apple and Samsung both won lawsuits against one and other proves that both companies tend to use IP rights in similar manner, infringing competitors rights at a certain point in time. Thirdly, aspects of the interaction of IP rights and international trade are obvious because the many lawsuits in many jurisdictions and the fact that requests to ban the products infringing IP rights on those markets proves exactly the fact that the scope of the actions is related to trading and selling products worldwide.

Recommendation. A similar study within the private sector could provide additional insights.” (Bolos, 2012)

Article Review 6

“Keywords. Strategic company goals; company’s stakeholder concept; Stakeholder Relationship Management; AHP.

Purpose. Primary data collection was focused on identifying company goals and the company´s stakeholder approach, defining stakeholders’ typology, clarifying the quantitative indicators for stakeholders’ requirements in each stakeholder group, and describing policies to resolve conflicts between the company and its stakeholders. Field research was evaluated with the Multi-criteria decision analysis method, specifically Analytic Hierarchy Process.

Theory Reference. Microeconomic Theory of Enterprises

Method/Instruments. This paper contributes a methodology and detailed evaluation of research was carried out by applying the questionnaire survey method. Out of a total of 200 questionnaires,170 were used for further analysis. The empirical data was then processed using simple statistical analysis methods like the Arithmetic or Weighted Mean and the Analytical Hierarchical Process Method.

Results. The results of this evaluation reveal the equilibrium of the enterprise may, under the circumstances, be influenced by a range of new factors. Their influence and impact on the enterprise can be not only positive but also negative. Therefore, it is necessary that the negative effects be noticed in sufficient time and eliminated. On the other hand, factors that can affect an enterprise´s existence positively must be used to benefit its long-term development, existence, etc.” (Dohnalová, Zuzana & Zimola, Bedřich, 2014)

Article Review 7

“Keywords. Leadership, Leader emergence, Cognitive resource theory, Leader behaviours, Leadership fit, Situational stress

Purpose. The purpose of this paper is to develop a theoretical framework to explain how leaders emerge in teams that lack a hierarchical structure.

Method/Instruments. This paper builds on prior leadership research to develop a theoretical framework of emergent leadership, a testable model, and research propositions.

Results. The authors suggest that team members’ perceptions of leadership fit depend on the potential leader’s domain competence, fluid intelligence, willingness to serve, credibility, and goal attainment. A conceptual framework is developed to suggest these attributes combine to create perceptions of leadership fit that must correspond to the degree of stress in the situational context, which varies according to task criticality and time compression. The framework suggests that an individual perceived by team members to exhibit characteristics that fit with the situation will likely emerge as the leader.

Limitations/implications. This paper focusses on emergent leadership but does not address which path to leadership may be best.

Recommendations. Future research may also address group dynamics (i.e. cohesion or group potency) and the implications for leader emergence.” (Norton, Murfield & Baucus,2014).

Article Review 8

“Keywords. Organizational culture, Employee’s performance, Public sector

Purpose. This paper examines the role of organizational culture on an employee’s performance within the context of public sector organizations

Method/Instruments. Researchers collected data from 250 employees using a questionnaire based on a well-known and extensively used measurement tool developed by Wallach.

Results. Two out of the three cultural dimensions identified in this study are found to have a significant positive influence on an employee’s performance

Recommendations. The study contributes understanding of organizational culture by providing empirical evidence from a public sector organization in Oman. future research direction, we highlight the need for studies on cultural research to examine other types of culture applicable within the public sector domain using a larger sample.” (Isa, Ugheoke, & Noor, 2016).

Article Review 9

“Keywords. Transactional Leadership, Organizational Commitment, Transformational Leadership, Motivation.

Purpose. The objective of this paper study is to draw from the autocratic and transformational leadership styles to advance further understanding on the underlying mechanisms that enable leaders to behave in an autocratic or transformational manner; and to affect employee motivation, their behavior and consequently, their organizational oriented ventures. The paper intends to establish the role of leadership style in motivating the teaching staff to be committed to their work.

Theory Reference. Motivation theory

Method/Instruments. From these 13 high schools, 184 teaching staff were selected to participate. It should be noted that these ‘high schools were not performing above the provincial benchmark. In order to obtain a holistic view of the overall leadership style present in the school system, a Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) was used. The researchers administered the questionnaires with the assistance of schools’ administrative clerks and the completed questionnaires were collected by the research support group. Data were analysed by descriptive statistics, such as percentages, frequency and the Cronbach-alpha coefficient to test among other things, the reliability of describing the impact and the leadership style in these schools.

Results. The study reveals that their strong relationship between transformational leadership behaviors and commitment (affective commitment; continuance commitment; and normative commitment). The findings further highlighted the relationship trust, inspiring a shared vision, encouraging creativity and emphasizing development as positive aspect that motivate staff.” (Naile & Selesho, 2014)

Article Review 10


Purpose. This study presents the Essential Behavioral Leadership Qualities (EBLQ) approach for assessing leadership effectiveness as an alternative method to commonly used assessment procedures. Among other assumptions, the EBLQ method is built on the assumptions that a leader should be evaluated on clearly defined behavioral qualities and his/her effectiveness rating should be standard based.

Theory Reference. Leader traits theory

Method. Method used is population of school leaders was chosen for this case study because effective leadership is important to them as it is for other organizations, and leadership effectiveness in these schools has not been widely studied.


Limitation. Due to limited budget, and given that factor analysis established ad-equate sampling for each EBLQ item, no efforts were made to elicit participation from more potential respondents.” (Oyinlade, 2008)

Article Review 11

Keywords. University, Innovation, Leadership, Goverance, Organizational framework, Transformation.

Purpose. Higher education (HE) institutions can struggle to achieve change at the scale and speed needed, given their pluralistic nature and competing goals.

Method. Drawing upon a conceptual framework of leadership and governance to codify change management and its acceleration, the change journey in a university undergoing a strategic transformation has been analyzed.

Results. Analyses reveal how the SMH worked with the adaptive social networks of staff and stakeholders in concert around a shared purpose, identifying enablers and barriers to a healthy idea flow. Drawing on the leadership and governance framework empowers organizational transformation, paying more deliberate attention to the stewardship of ideas and how change happens.

Conclusion. The importance of activating people around shared purpose through deliberate engagement by leaders with social networks is relevant to delivering transformation in conditions of super complexity.” (Purcell & Chahine, 2019)

Article Review 12

Keywords. Leadership, leader, change, influence

Purpose. The purpose of this research is to determine the knowledge and application of the leadership concept in the Romanian organizations under conditions imposed by the external environment which is characterized by frequent changes and variations with both positive and negative effects on organizations, and also to determine the response of the organizations to these changes.

Method. The research shows that out of 102 managers who were analyzed, more than a half (55%) are women, and in terms of the age, the most of them are between 26 and 30 years old (31%), followed closely by those aged between 20 and 25 years (30%).

Results. The managers of organizations know and agree that leaders are agents of change in organizations which involve team in decision process and use a wide range of rewards.

Conclusion. So, the next successful organizations will be those who understand, and not just this, but act to develop their leaders which can influence by their qualities and skills used to determine others to achieve certain goals in these times of incertitude.” (Văcar & Miricescu, 2013)


Adeyemi-Bello, T. (2001). The impact of leadership style on organizational growth. Work Study,

50(4), 150-153. Retrieved from

Agwu, E. (2019). Impact of Stakeholders’ Analysis on Organizational Performance: A Study of Nigerian Financial Organizations. International Journal of Strategic Decision Sciences. 10. 64-80. 10.4018/IJSDS.2019100104.

Al Halbusi, H., Williams, K., Mansoor, H., Hassan, M. and Hamid, F. (2019). Examining the impact of ethical leadership and organizational justice on employees’ ethical behavior: Does person–organization fit play a role?. Ethics & Behavior, pp.1-19.

Appelbaum, S. and Roy‐Girard, D., 2007. Toxins in the workplace: affect on organizations and employees. Corporate Governance: The international journal of business in society, 7(1), pp.17-28. Retrieved from

Bolos, M. (2012). IP Protection and International Trade. Procedia Economics and Finance, 3, pp.908-913.Retrieved from

Dohnalová, Z., & Zimola, B. (2014). Corporate Stakeholder Management. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences. 110. 879-886. 10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.12.933. Retrieved from

Isa, M., Ugheoke, S., & Noor, W. (2016). The Influence of Organizational Culture on Employees’ Performance: Evidence from Oman. Journal of Entrepreneurship and Business, 4(2), pp.1-12.

Norton, I, W., & Murfield, M, L., & Baucus, M. (2014). Leader Emergence: The Development

of a Theoretical Framework. Leadership & Organization Development Journal. 35. 513-529. 10.1108/LODJ-08-2012-0109.

Naile, I. and Selesho, J. (2014). The Role of Leadership in Employee Motivation. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences. Retrieved from

Oyinlade, A. O. (2008). A Method of Assessing Leadership Effectiveness. Performance Improvement Quarterly. 19. 25 – 40. 10.1111/j.1937-8327.2006.tb00355.x.

Purcell, W. and Chahine, T. (2019). Leadership and governance frameworks driving transformational change in an entrepreneurial UK university. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 40(5), pp.612-623.

Văcar, A. and Miricescu, D., (2013). Leadership – A Key Factor to a Succesful Organization – Part II. Procedia Economics and Finance, 6, pp.430-435.

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